The family from a child development perspective Theories of child development, which approach the family from the child perspective, include concerns with nature versus nurture, the flexibility or plasticity of the child at different ages to being moulded by the family, and the relative permanence of family influences Kreppner and Lerner
In order to carry out correct behaviour—that is to say, correct in relation to the survival of the individual—humans have developed innate drives, desires, and emotions and the ability to remember and learn.
These fundamental features of living depend on the entire brain, yet… Theories of development The systematic study of children is less than years old, and the vast majority of its research has been published since the mids. Basic philosophical differences over the fundamental nature of children and their growth occupied 5 factors of political socialization during much of the 20th century.
Most researchers came to recognize, however, that it is the interaction of inborn biological factors with external factors, rather than the mutually exclusive action or predominance of one or the other force, that guides and influences human development.
The advances in cognition, emotion, and behaviour that normally occur at certain points in the life span require both maturation i.
Generally, maturation by itself cannot cause a psychological function to emerge; it does, however, permit such a function to occur and sets limits on its earliest time of appearance.
Three prominent theories of human development emerged in the 20th century, each addressing different aspects of psychological growth. In retrospect, these and other theories seem to have been neither logically rigorous nor able to account for both intellectual and emotional growth within the same framework.
Research in the field has thus tended to be descriptive, since developmental psychology lacks a tight net of interlocking theoretical propositions that reliably permit satisfying explanations.
During the first postnatal year, libido is initially focused on the mouth and its activities; nursing enables the infant to derive gratification through a pleasurable reduction of tension in the oral region.
Freud called this the oral stage of development. During the second year, the source of excitation is said to shift to the anal area, and the start of toilet training leads the child to invest libido in the anal functions.
Freud called this period of development the anal stage. The half dozen years before puberty are called the latency stage. During the final and so-called genital stage of development, mature gratification is sought in a heterosexual love relationship with another. Freud believed that adult emotional problems result from either deprivation or excessive gratification during the oral, anal, or phallic stages.
A child with libido fixated at one of these stages would in adulthood show specific neurotic symptoms, such as anxiety. Freud devised an influential theory of personality structure. During infancy and childhood, the egowhich is the reality-oriented portion of the personality, develops to balance and complement the id.
The ego utilizes a variety of conscious and unconscious mental processes to try to satisfy id instincts while also trying to maintain the individual comfortably in relation to the environment.
Child development, according to Freud, is thus primarily concerned with the emergence of the functions of the ego, which is responsible for channeling the discharge of fundamental drives and for controlling intellectual and perceptual functions in the process of negotiating realistically with the outside world.
Although Freud made great contributions to psychological theory—particularly in his concept of unconscious urges and motivations—his elegant concepts cannot be verified through scientific experimentation and empirical observation.
But his concentration on emotional development in early childhood influenced even those schools of thought that rejected his theories. The belief that personality is affected by both biological and psychosocial forces operating principally within the family, with the major foundations being laid early in life, continues to prove fruitful in research on infant and child development.
Erikson viewed emotional development over the life span as a sequence of stages during which there occur important inner conflicts whose successful resolution depends on both the child himself and his environment. These conflicts can be thought of as interactions between instinctual drives and motives on the one hand and social and other external factors on the other.
Erikson evolved eight stages of development, the first four of which are 1 infancy: Conflicts at any one stage must be resolved if personality problems are to be avoided.
The four stages given by Piaget are 1 the sensorimotor stage from birth to 2 years, 2 the preoperational stage from 2 to 7 years, 3 the concrete-operational stage from 7 to 12 years, and 4 the stage of formal operations that characterizes the adolescent and the adult.
For example, Piaget believed that as a two-year-old child repeatedly builds and knocks down a tower of blocks, he is learning that the arrangement of objects in the world can be reversed. According to Piaget, children organize and adapt their experiences with objects into increasingly sophisticated cognitive models that enable them to deal with future situations in more effective ways.Bookmark.
College–Level Sociology Curriculum For Introduction to Sociology.
Prepared by the American Sociological Association Task Force on a College Level Introduction to Sociology Course. The Course * Summary Course Outline * Course Narrative. The Course. Purpose: The College-Level Sociology course is designed to introduce students to the sociological study of society.
Use and Political Socialization Television viewing is associated with political knowledge and more favorable attitudes toward government is mediated by such factors as group mem- bership, opinion leadership, and the two- step flow ofcommunicationT3.
This cultural view of parents being the gatekeepers in children’s political orientation is defused in the political socialization line of research in which the primary examination of children’s political socialization is the family.
Political Socialization in Nigeria - This essay is aimed to examine one of the agents of political socialisation for the way in which it operates and the effects it may have in Nigeria. Political socialization is the "process by which individuals learn and frequently internalize a political lens framing their perceptions of how power is arranged and how the world around them is (and should be) organized; those perceptions, in turn, shape and define individuals' definitions of who they are and how they should behave in the political and economic institutions in which they live.".
Political socialization refers to the process by which the central values of the political culture are transmitted from one generation to another. Race, class, and gender are all independent variables in establishing these cultural values and each can shift political socialization.