However, Lauster does accept the importance of The Arcades Project in assembling excerpts from nineteenth-century sources dealing with the phenomena of novelty — in particular the arcades and department stores, panoramas, exhibitions, fashion, and gaslight. In short, they resemble observations of a flaneur, the viewer who takes pleasure in abandoning himself to the artificial world of high capitalist civilization.
Printed by Thomas and Samuel F. Benjamin Rush collected twenty-five of his previous writings and published them in Philadelphia in in a volume he titled Essays, Literary, Moral, and Philosophical. The famous doctor, philosopher, and patriot had published on a host of subjects in the previous decade.
Many of these items had first been seen in pamphlet form, or in the pages of the American Museum and the Columbian Magazine, some years before. Two essays in the twenty-five had not previously been printed in any form.
Though Rush published rich treatises on medicine, constitutional matters, and government, many of his essays served as an aggressive defense of his own opinions of the moment on various matters, great and small. One may assume that the pieces he chose for this volume represent the ideas that had remained important to him in the intervening years.
They do include some of his most well known views on education, government, and slavery. Ever the apostle of the "useful," he was explicit in his hope that this republication would aid in advancing those causes still requiring action. But he also recognized advances. He left out two earlier essays on slavery, for example, saying that the matter was now closer to resolution worldwide and that anti-slavery societies in Great Britain were currently active in providing more valuable tracts condemning the trade.
The essays he did include are arranged as follows: Addressed to the Legislature and Citizens of Pennsylvania, in the year In this opening essay, one of his most famous, Rush advocates learning friendly to religion, liberty, law, manners, agriculture, and manufacture.
His "simple plan" for the state advocates one university in the capital and four colleges in Philadelphia, Carlisle, Lancaster, and Pittsburghtogether with free schools in every township in Pennsylvania. All of society would bear the cost, and all would be repaid through improvement in trade, manufacture, and order.
On the mode of Education proper in a Republic. Following on from his previous essay, Rush warns that the state's varied and numerous immigrants made success in public education vital. The young should be converted into "republican machines.
Christianity teaches humility, self-denial, and brotherly love, all so important in the running of a republic. To cement love of country and liberty, citizens must believe that they are themselves "public property.
He stands against boarding in dormitories, preferring the civilizing effect of local families. His curriculum would prefer active languages to "dead" ones - no degree would be awarded without facilities in French and German.
The program would contain eloquence, a close attention to the English language, History, Commerce, and Chemistry. At some stage, there should be taught useful subjects such as agriculture, manufacture, inland navigation, and government, including attendance at county court sessions.
Women should also be educated in government, liberty, and patriotism since they are the first teachers of young children.
Observations upon the study of the Latin and Greek languages, as a branch of liberal Education, with hints of a plan of liberal Instruction, without them, accommodated to the present state of society, manners and government in the United States.
The theme of education continues with his hostility to the time and energies schools and scholars waste in the pursuit of "dead" languages, especially Latin and Greek, saying that there are "a hundred more useful subjects. He attacks the defense put up that these studies enhance good English, taste, eloquence, and vocabulary.
It is time in a new century to leave the often impious and immoral legends of the past; their studies are no longer needed.
Abandoning them will purify English and revitalize and democratize schools. In this reform Rush would like to see children during the first eight years of life reading, writing, and speaking only English, followed by four years more of natural history and geography.
French and German would follow at twelve years old, with arithmetic. From fourteen through eighteen years, students could turn to philosophy, grammar, rhetoric, logic, and history. Since this proposal met with a storm of correspondence when it was first published, Rush here includes support from a Virginia academy head in Alexandria, and his letter in answer.
Thoughts upon the amusements and punishments, which are proper for Schools is a reply Rush wrote in August to George Clymer, a well-known Philadelphia merchant who signed the Declaration of Independence, was a Pennsylvania representative to the first U.
Congress, and first president of the Philadelphia Bank. Clymer had asked his opinion, and Rush was specific in his response.
Amusements should be strictly supervised and should include agriculture growing vegetables, for example and manufactures like carpentry. Punishments of the type now usual in schools were disgraceful, he said.The Savings and Loan Scandal and Public Accounting.
By Wade Frazier. Originally published June 19, , updated in November A Brief Economic History. The full text of the Declaration of Independence is presented here, followed by an essay called “What Is Freedom?” The Declaration of Independence of the Thirteen Colonies.
In , Benjamin Rush collects twenty-five of his previous writings and republishes them in a single volume. The essays range in topic from education and crime .
Benjamin Rush collected twenty-five of his previous writings and published them in Philadelphia in in a volume he titled Essays, Literary, Moral, and Philosophical.
The famous doctor, philosopher, and patriot had published on a host of subjects in the previous decade. The history of California can be divided into: the Native American period; European exploration period from to ; the Spanish colonial period, to ; the Mexican period, to ; and United States statehood, from September 9, (in Compromise of ) which continues to this present day..
California was settled from the North by successive waves of arrivals during the. Born in northern Ireland, in the Province of Ulster as the second son of a well-to-do farmer, John Smith, James came into the world on 17 September The family emigrated to America, where they settled in Chester County, Pennsylvania in Young James Smith was tutored in the classical.