Preface PR 15 Employment Contracts The law that governs relationships between employers and employees comes from many sources: This chapter provides an overview of contract law as it relates to employment contracts. Employment as a Contract The employment relationship establishes a contract, whether it is written or oral, express or implied. As summed up in Foley v.
Generally speaking, stakeholders are individuals or entities who stand to gain Policy makers and many employers are convinced lose from the success or failure of a system or an organization.
Stakeholder theory suggests that businesses need to pay attention to stakeholders by focusing on those who affect or are affected by its products or services. Stakeholder analysis creates a framework within which businesses identify, evaluate, and then incorporate these interests into their decision-making processes.
Well-structured consideration of expanded interests leads to better planning, new and creative initiatives and improved resource allocation--all of which promote organizational success and curb failure.
The first step of business stakeholder analysis is identifying the relevant stakeholders. These include people and entities within and outside the business itself.
For example, a business that produces consumer products cares about its customers but also its suppliers, its prospective customers, its employees, and its community. In an educational institution, a stakeholder analysis would start by identifying the obvious and well-known stakeholders: But the assessment would not stop there.
Educational institutions at both the undergraduate and graduate levels would need to consider, among others, their alumni, the parent body, the community where they are located, and the entities--both public and private--that will be employing their graduating students.
Ideally, educators would also consider the ultimate consumer of the employer's products; for example, a law school would consider the ultimate consumer of legal services in addition to the law firm itself, and a medical school would consider the patients in addition to the hospitals. In the second phase of stakeholder analysis, business leaders prioritize among the stakeholders by assessing both their relative interest in and influence on power within the organization.
Imagine a chart with a vertical axis of interest high at the top and low at the bottom and a horizontal axis of influence high at the right and low at the left. From a business perspective, while all stakeholders appear on the chart, those with both the greatest interest and influence are of the highest priority.
Those with the least interest and least influence may be worth cultivating prospectively but need not have a mainstream role in business planning.
Employees' families arguably have high interest in the business of their family member but low influence. This signals the importance of communicating with this constituency but not necessarily involving them directly in the enterprise.
In contrast, customers the ultimate end-user of the business's product may have both high interest in and influence on this particular business since their views directly affect the businesses and their own success. Their views need to play a central role in planning. Parents increasingly have a great interest in the educational institution their child is attending but little influence over the enterprise.
Similarly, the local community has considerable interest in but little influence on the enterprise. These placements signal the importance of educational institutions increasing their communication with these constituencies and perhaps considering ways to involve them more fully within the on-campus life of the institution.
The role of employers is not so easily addressed. Their placement in designated quadrants--likely low interest on the part of the employer and low influence within the academy --may accurately reflect an institution and employer's current thinking.
But, that placement may not be optimal. Surely the employers of recent graduates whether from undergraduate or graduate school are stakeholders.
In a perfectly synergistic environment, prospective employers would have both high interest in and influence on educational institutions. This is how they will ensure the graduates they hire will be well-prepared for the workplace, and employers will be not be required to provide additional and expensive retraining.
Correspondingly, academic institutions will recognize and value employers who both hire and are happy with their graduates and immediately include them in institutional thinking. Many employers would suggest quite rightly that they have little influence on the educational enterprise although, in a real sense, they--the employer--are a critical customer.
To be fair, many employers have shown little interest in educational institutions, preferring to do their own training. Correspondingly, academic institutions, with the growing exception of some professional schools and other schools with extensive externships and other outreach programs, have not exactly welcomed employers as key participants in the academic enterprise.
What students do on campus both within and outside the classroom is generally divorced from their prospective work environment. This approach needs to change, even within traditional liberal arts institutions. If a graduating student is unemployable or only employable with extensive retraining, then the educational institution, in essence, has failed.
The employers will be disturbed--as will the students and their families. Stakeholder analysis signals that both employers and educational institutions are missing their important interrelationship.
If educational institutions have a better sense of what employers want in their future employees and businesses have opportunities to share their needs and obtain graduates who are better workers, then both enterprises benefit.
To fit there comfortably, both groups must change. With priorities established, stakeholder analysis turns to understanding the stakeholder interests within each quadrant, often through detailed interviews with them. After careful evaluation, stakeholder analysis actually moves to incorporating the gathered information into the design and function of the business enterprise.Abstract.
Many employers in the US are investing in new programmes to improve the quality of medical care and simultaneously shifting more of the healthcare costs to their employees without understanding the implications on the amount and type of care their employees will receive.
“But inexplicably, policy makers are failing to take into account the many significant economic changes in recent decades that are holding down wage growth.” Shilling explores six main reasons why the relationship between employment and inflation has weakened so dramatically.
But even though policy makers at the governmental level may agree on and be convinced of the necessity to stimulate participation of older workers, it depends on (individual) workers’ and especially employers’ behaviour whether this macro level goal can and will be actually achieved.
For employers, a criminal history may signal an untrust-worthy employee who may break rules, steal, or deal poorly with customers. Employers’ reluctance to hire such individuals may be prompted by law or by fear of litigation. Some occupations, such as those involving contact with children, are legally closed to people with felony convictions.
Employers seeking to prey upon the most vulnerable among us survivors have shined a light on the dark labor conditions they face and convinced policy makers, time and again, to adopt their solutions.
Today, seven states across the advocating with policy makers, and building strategies to prevent human trafficking.
OSHA's recordkeeping rule covers many employers in OSHA's jurisdiction but continues to exempt many employers from the need to keep occupational injury and illness records routinely.
This approach to the scope of the rule is consistent with that taken in the former recordkeeping rule.