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When an electron beam impinges on a solid surface, it loses energy primarily by electron-electron interactions. In those interactions, the energy gained by electrons in the solid is often sufficient to ionize them; the electrons thus ionized are called secondary electrons SE.
The interactions of a primary electron with the solid are classed as elastic energy-conserving and inelastic energy non-conserving. In the latter case, energy fails to be conserved in the sense that, while total energy is conserved, energy is transferred from one subsystem typically the primary electron to another the solid.
It is important to recognize that the simpler processes one imagines are typically elastic. For example, if one regards the solid simply as a rigid electrostatic potential, then almost no energy is lost by the primary electron: It is thus clear that inelastic processes--and energy loss by the primary electron--require recoil--some movement of the electrostatic potential generated by the solid.
There is a more roundabout intuitive way to see this, which demonstrates in a small way the unity of physical law. If energy is lost by the primary electron, then the energy lost must be taken up by the solid.
Since the potential energy of the solid is determined by the positions of its constituents, it is clear that neither the potential nor the kinetic energy can change unless some part of the solid moves.
A junction in a bipolar junction transistor BJT between emitter E and base regions. By some measures, the best version of this is the famous eleventh edition first half published December ; second half six months later.
It is available free online in increasingly readable form it is slowly being converted from badly OCR 'ed versions. The modern online version is available mostly by subscription. The beginnings of articles are available as a tease. I can't quite put my finger on the reason, but the online edition of the modern EB feels anti-intuitive and hard to use.
The information is scattered in packets that don't connect very well or form a coherent narrative. Kinda like this glossary. The eleventh edition, on the other hand, is an object of veneration. They did get a lot of very good contributors, famous experts in their fields: This optimistic spirit was reflected later in the year [, marking the th anniversary of the first edition] by the publication of a full-length history called The Great EB, which presented an exhaustive account of the Encyclopaedia's growth and financial history.
The author of this skillful exercise in public relations was Herman Kogan, a former Chicago newspaperman who was subsequently appointed Director of Company Relations for the Britannica.
The early parts of his book were animated by a critical spirit, but the closing portion merely offered a glowing description of the Company's editorial and sales policies. Despite this defect, The Great EB is a useful historical work because it was compiled from the Company's private archives.
It supplied a great deal of material for this [third] chapter--and its quasi-official character was emphasized by its publication by the University of Chicago Press.
Incidentally, I've decided to dedicate this entry to the memory of my cousin Rita Schaeffer, because she used to sell the Britannica.History. The entire pres occidental history of Burma's jade mines is covered in Hughes ().With the exception of a brief mention in Griffith (), virtually the only account in English of the early history of jadeite in then-Burma is that of a Mr.
Warry of the Chinese Consular Service. Then took the other, as just as fair, Meter is something that Frost liked to use a lot, even when he didn't use rhyme. Summarize Robert Frost's poem 'The Road Not Taken'.
There are multiple poetic devices used in Robert Frost's poem The Road Not Taken. In the first line, the poet used assonance. Assonance is the repetition of a vowel sound within a line of poetry.
is and in to a was not you i of it the be he his but for are this that by on at they with which she or from had we will have an what been one if would who has her. Robert Frost once said that "Mending Wall" was a poem that was spoiled by being applied.
What did he mean by "applied"? Any poem is damaged by being misunderstood, but that's the risk all poems run. Definitions of "Fantasy" And what do we even mean by "Fantasy" anyway? First of all, we distinguish between "Science Fiction" and "Fantasy" in that "Science Fiction", as defined elsewhere in this page (DEFINITIONS: what is science fiction?) involves strangeness extrapolated from science and technology, rather than contrary to natural law.