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Juries are most common in common law adversarial-system jurisdictions. In the modern system, juries act as triers of factwhile judges act as triers of law. A trial without a jury in which both questions of fact and questions of law are decided by a judge is known as a bench trial.
Types of jury The "petit jury" or "trial jury", sometimes "petty jury" hears the evidence in a trial as presented by both the plaintiff petitioner and the defendant respondent. After hearing the evidence and often jury instructions from the judgethe group retires for deliberationto consider a verdict.
The majority required for a verdict varies. In some cases it must be unanimous, while in other jurisdictions it may be a majority or supermajority. A jury that is unable to come to a verdict is referred to as a hung jury.
The size of the jury varies; in criminal cases involving serious felonies there are usually 12 jurors, although Scotland uses A number of countries that are not in the English common law tradition have quasi-juries on which lay judges or jurors and professional judges deliberate together regarding criminal cases.
However, the common law trial jury is the most common type of jury system. In civil cases many trials require fewer than twelve jurors. Juries are almost never used in civil cases outside the United States and Canada.
Other states with a common law tradition sometimes use them in defamation cases, in cases involving a governmental eminent domain power, and in cases involving alleged wrongful conviction.
Civil law countries generally do not use civil juries. Civil juries are available in the United States and Canada in almost all cases where the only remedy sought is money damages. A grand jurya type of jury now confined almost exclusively to federal courts and some state jurisdictions in the United States, determines whether there is enough evidence for a criminal trial to go forward.
Grand juries carry out this duty by examining evidence presented to them by a prosecutor and issuing indictmentsor by investigating alleged crimes and issuing presentments.
A grand jury is traditionally larger than and distinguishable from the petit jury used during a trial, usually with 12 jurors. It is not required that a suspect be notified of grand jury proceedings. Grand juries can also be used for filing charges in the form of a sealed indictment against unaware suspects who are arrested later by a surprise police visit.
In addition to their primary role in screening criminal prosecutions and assisting in the investigation of crimes, grand juries in California, Florida,  and some other U. A third kind of jury, known as a coroner's jury can be convened in some common law jurisdiction in connection with an inquest by a coroner.
A coroner is a public official often an elected local government official in the United Stateswho is charged with determining the circumstances leading to a death in ambiguous or suspicious cases.
A coroner's jury is generally a body that a coroner can convene on an optional basis in order to increase public confidence in the coroner's finding where there might otherwise be a controversy. A jury is intended to be an impartial panel capable of reaching a verdict. Procedures and requirements include a fluent understanding of the language, or the ability to test jurors' neutrality or otherwise exclude jurors who are perceived as less than neutral or more partial to one side or the other.
Juries are initially chosen randomly, usually from the eligible population of adult citizens residing in the court's jurisdictional area. Jury selection in the United States usually includes organized questioning of the prospective jurors jury pool by the lawyers for the plaintiff and the defendant and by the judge— voir dire —as well as rejecting some jurors because of bias or inability to properly serve "challenge for cause"and the discretionary right of each side to reject a specified number of jurors without having to prove a proper cause for the rejection "peremptory challenge"before the jury is impaneled.
A head juror is called the "foreperson," "foreman" or "presiding juror". The foreperson is sometimes chosen before the trial begins and other times upon the beginning of deliberations. The foreperson may be selected by the judge or by vote of the jurors, depending on the jurisdiction.
The foreperson's role may include to ask questions usually to the judge on behalf of the jury, to facilitate jury discussions, and sometimes to read the verdict of the jury. Since there is always the possibility of jurors not completing a trial for health or other reasons, often one or more alternate jurors are selected.
Alternates are present for the entire trial but do not take part in deliberating the case and deciding the verdict unless one or more of the impaneled jurors are removed from the jury.Wikipedia:ACF Regionals answers.
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Of course, these are largely simplified, and most people don’t . Badiou and Plato - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. The entire wikipedia with video and photo galleries for each article. Find something interesting to watch in seconds. For the first time, The Plot to Destroy Democracy reveals the dramatic story of how blackmail, espionage, assassination, and psychological warfare were used by Vladimir Putin and his spy agencies to steal the U.S.
election--and attempted to bring about the fall of NATO, the European Union, and western democracy. Yet that original plan for representative democracy repays the trouble of re-examination. The eighth chapter, concluding Part One, is devoted to an examination of how the major democracies managed to declare an unpopular war against Iraq in