What is Title IX? Who does Title IX apply to? Title IX applies to all educational institutions, both public and private, that receive federal funds.
Prior toactivities for women were recreational rather than sport-specific in nature. They were noncompetitive, informal, rule-less; they emphasized physical activity rather than competition. Homer, c B. Odysseus was awakened by the shouts of the girls engaged in their sport.
Thousands of years later, the shouts of girls playing ball finally awoke the United States to the need for sport-specific opportunities for women. A dominant belief in the s was that each human had a fixed amount of energy. Horseback riding for pleasure, showboating, and swimming became fashionable, but women were not encouraged to exert themselves.
Inas women were beginning to gain access to higher education, Dr. Edward Clarke published Sex in Education; or, A Fair Chance for Girls, which sparked a tenacious and acrimonious debate about the capacity of women for physical activity.
Manipulating science to reinforce established dogma prevailed for many years in spite of repeated examples of women who were perfectly capable of performing physical feats and intellectual tasks.
As more women sought to become involved in physical activity, they became more competitive. In the late s and early s, women began to form informal athletic clubs.
Tennis, croquet, bowling, and archery were popular in clubs from New York to New Orleans.
Parallel clubs in colleges began to appear during this time, but a major difference between the social metropolitan clubs and the college clubs was that the latter frequently sponsored coed competition as occasions for social gatherings Gerber, et al. College Sports for Women Prior to Title IX Early college sports for women have been largely unrecognized by historians because competition was within college between students intramural rather than between the institutions extramural.
In fact, many women Olympic athletes credit Title IX for the opportunity to attend college through athletic scholarships and to participate in sports In addition, because of Title IX the salaries of coaches for women's teams have increased. Rather, Title IX requires that the men and women's program receive the same level of service, facilities, supplies and etc. Variations within the men and women's program are allowed, as long as the variations are justified. The number of women in high school sports had increased by a factor of nine, while the number of women in college sports had increased by more than %. A study of intercollegiate athletics showed that women's collegiate sports have grown to 9, teams, or per school.
These were special dates when women competed in sports and activities against students and teams from their schools. They were determined to keep athletics in an educational environment for women. This occurred just as the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching produced its report, American College Athletics, reporting that amateurism was being eliminated or modified from athletics at the college level as colleges turned athletics into big business.
Women were not active in intercollegiate sport until basketball was introduced at Smith College in Gerber, et al. Basketball quickly spread to other colleges, and students began to clamor for intercollegiate play.
The first intercollegiate competition among women was a scheduled tennis tournament between Bryn Mawr and Vassar.
Stanford and the University of Washington vs. Ellensburg Normal School; they played in Gerber, et al. Competitive events for college women increased in the early s.
The first feminist movement resulted in modest gains for women in sports and intercollegiate competition, but these gains were negated by the depression in the s. The s brought war to the United States and millions of men entered the military.
Many women believed that if they could compete successfully in the work force, then they could certainly compete on the athletic fields Chafe, When World War II ended, organizations for women in sport began to increase as sport became more competitive and intercollegiate and interscholastic competition spread Gerber, et al.
In the s and s, the social conscience of America was changing. The push for Civil Rights, which culminated in the passage of the Civil Rights Act ofhelped increase the status of women and minorities. Swimming, badminton, and volleyball followed in and inbasketball was added.
Women wanted an institutional membership organization similar to the NCAA. The increasingly positive attitude toward women in sport carried over into the s Hult, The AIAW began the academic year with charter institutions.
Bytheir membership exceeded Instead, the AIAW emphasized participation in sport as the most important aspect and de-emphasized winning Sperber, Georgetown University professor Bonnie Morris talked about discrimination against women in sports and Title IX of the Education Amendments of In fact, many women Olympic athletes credit Title IX for the opportunity to attend college through athletic scholarships and to participate in sports In addition, because of Title IX the salaries of coaches for women's teams have increased.
Signage at the Title IX rally at United States Capitol, April June 23, Title IX of the Education Amendments is enacted by Congress and is signed into law by Richard Nixon. Title IX was signed by President Nixon on June 23, Almost immediately, its effect could be felt at schools across the country A look at .
Before Title IX, women coached 90% of women's teams; in that percentage dropped to 58, and in it dropped even more to 44 percent. In , women administered 90 percent of women's athletic programs, and in this fell to 19 percent.
The number of women in high school sports had increased by a factor of nine, while the number of women in college sports had increased by more than %. A study of intercollegiate athletics showed that women's collegiate sports have grown to 9, teams, or per school.